A 32-year-old woman presents with an acute onset of left arm and leg numbness. An MRI of the brain shows two enhancing lesions in the periventricular white matter and 2 more T2 lesions in the cerebellum and deep white matter. A cervical spine MRI also shows a contrast enhancing lesion that is one segment in length at the level of C3. An autoimmune laboratory screen was negative for any other autoimmune disease.
Six months ago, you saw a 28-year-old woman whose medical history was remarkable for major depression. She reported an episode of left hemibody tingling, which had lasted ten days and resolved two days before your appointment with her. She otherwise felt well and her neurological examination was normal. A brain MRI revealed two small ovoid periventricular lesions that were nonenhancing and her cervical MRI was normal. After discussion with the patient, you mutually decided to defer therapy and to observe her off treatment. She presents now for six month follow-up and reports no new symptoms. Her examination remains unremarkable. You review her new brain MRI, which shows three new lesions: a moderately sized periventricular lesion, a small lesion in the right middle cerebellar peduncle, and a small enhancing juxtacortical lesion in the right frontal lobe.
This is a follow-up to Parts 1 through 3 of 4 – and uses the information from those posts.
Several other lesions are shown below. The first two images are the same slice, being a post-gadolinium and FLAIR, which shows another incomplete ring lesion. The two right images are at different levels showing non-enhancing lesions (post contrast images not shown). What is most significant about the entire collection of lesions shown throughout these questions, all seen in this one patient, that may help with an etiology?
A 44-year-old male was transferred to our hospital for metastatic workup of multiple “ring enhancing lesions,” which were visualized on an outside-hospital MRI. He was scheduled for biopsy the next day, and a new set of pre-operative images were obtained and reviewed.
Question 1: Consider the images through the ring enhancing lesion in the left frontal lobe, which could have many etiologies. Which of the following possibilities are unlikely (can be more than one)?
A 56-year-old woman who started fingolimod 3 months ago for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis presented with abnormal vision in the right eye for 2 days. She denied any eye pain or headache, and describes the abnormality as blurred or distorted vision when she tries to read her computer screen. It improves if she closes her right eye. She thinks her peripheral vision is intact, but notes that shapes look distorted in her right eye when she looks directly at them. Her past medical history is significant for type II diabetes mellitus, poorly compliant with diet and oral hypoglycemics. Exam shows pupils to be equal and reactive without afferent pupillary defect. Acuities are 20/50 OD and 20/20 OS, with normal visual fields but abnormal Amsler grid with the right eye. Fundoscopic shows bitemporal disc pallor. MRI of the brain with and without contrast is acquired and shows stable burden of T2 lesions consistent with MS, without any abnormal gadolinium enhancement. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows central foveal thickness of 312uM OD and 268uM OS with a peri-foveal cystoid morphology.
A 37-year-old woman develops lower extremity numbness, weakness, and urinary retention that worsens rapidly over 4 days. Two years prior, she had a 2-week episode of intractable hiccups and nausea; gastroenterological evaluation was unrevealing and the symptoms resolved spontaneously. Current neurological examination shows severe paraparesis, loss of proprioception and vibration sense in the feet, and a spinal sensory level at T4. Emergent spinal cord MRI reveals an intramedullary lesion that extends contiguously from C6 to T5 vertebral levels and is associated with cord swelling and enhancement after gadolinium administration. Brain MRI shows scattered nonspecific subcortical white matter lesions. She is treated with IV methylprednisolone and achieves nearly complete resolution of her myelitis symptoms over the next 6 days.
— Dean M. Wingerchuk, MD, MSc, FRCP(C)
This question is related to the CME activity – Review of Neuromyelitis Optica. Participate in the webcast for more information on this topic.
I invite you to attend our seventh annual Mellen Update in Multiple Sclerosis, held at the InterContinental Hotel & Bank of America Conference Center on Friday, June 28, 2014. Our focus will be where we stand with treatment.
The past 5 years have yielded an explosion of new medications for MS. Deciding what medicines to begin and how to monitor and safeguard these medicines can be challenging for the busy clinician. Our keynote speaker this year, Dr. Jeff Dunn from Stanford Medical School, will discuss whether MS is truly one disease or perhaps several. Other speakers will review data on therapeutics and disease management.
We will have speakers on a diverse range of topics focused on what’s new and what’s important in the field: Vitamin D, MS pathology, treatment targets, MRI measures and symptoms management. This year we will address disability assessment and counseling as well as new technologies in MS and some exciting research work going on at the Mellen Center. We will focus on how treating MS patients affects the professional, reflecting a growing awareness of the importance of ‘mental health’ for clinicians to avoid burnout and job satisfaction issues. Building a better experience for our MS patients and initiating and monitoring the new MS medicines from an allied health professional point of view will be discussed.
A 33-year-old woman presented with blurred vision in her right eye, and retro-orbital pain when looking to the right. Exam showed a deafferented right pupil and diminished visual acuity to 20/80 OD. Brain MRI showed 3 periventricular T2 hyperintense lesions, none of which enhanced with gadolinium. She was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and vision improved to baseline within 3 weeks. Six months later, follow-up brain MRI showed a new gadolinium enhancing lesion in the right frontal lobe. Although she had no symptoms, she was started on interferon beta injections. She did well on interferon beta with only mild post-injection flu-like symptoms. At follow-up 6 months later she was asymptomatic, but brain MRI scan showed 2 new gadolinium enhancing lesions in the left hemispheric white matter.
Alexander D. Rae-Grant, MD
Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
Director of Resident and Student Education
Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research
Jennifer Hartman, PA-C
Claire Hara-Cleaver, CNP